## Maths Is Not What You Think: These Proofs Will Make You See Everything Differently

This article is going to be a far cry from the kind of maths you did in high school. High school maths is the real bare essentials. Most of it is the stuff that was discovered by the Ancient Greeks at the beginnings of when maths was created (operations, geometry, units). There’s a lot to say about the way that maths is taught in schools. It is very utilitarian (it teaches you what is useful), but it rarely inspires kids to try hard or develop an interest in, let alone see the beauty and profound philosophical significance of what is really the intricate rules that make up the universe. Maths seems just about the opposite to ‘beauty’ and ‘philosophy’ in the minds of most people into adulthood, even though it is probably the most beautiful, most philosophical thing.

We are going to stray far away from repetitive, functional mathematics where everything fits together like Lego and is set in stone. We are going towards the cutting-edge fringes of pure theoretical mathematics to see the most shocking, incomprehensible and controversial mathematical proofs, theories and results.

## Numbers So Large That If You Were To Comprehend Them Fully, They Would Collapse Your Brain Into A Black Hole (No Joke, This Would Literally, Physically Happen)

### Graham’s Number

This is the most iconic incomprehensibly super-stupendously enormous number in mathematics because it actually has practical uses (namely in modelling high dimensions and combinations of groups).

But you don’t believe that it would really collapse your head into a black hole do you? Maybe you don’t realise just how large it is. Graham’s Number is so large that if you were to fully comprehend it, it would exceed the maximum entropy that could be contained within the space occupied by your brain without collapsing into a black hole. There is no way to comprehend this number (not by psychological, but by physical limitations), it’s just nuts.

What is Graham’s Number? To describe it we need to use an up-arrow notation (that even itself needs to use ellipses in all directions to capture Graham’s Number)

Up-arrow notation:

a↑3 = aaa

Graham’s Number:

g1 = g↑↑↑↑3 (the number g to the power of itself three times equals the number of times that g is to the power of itself equals the number of times that it is to the power of itself equals the number of times that it is actually to the power of itself. This is already just beyond astronomical)

g2 = g↑···{g1}···↑3 (g with g1 number of up-arrows. This is insane)

g64 = g↑···{g63}···↑3 (This pattern is taken to the 64th position, and that is Graham’s Number)

So what is Graham’s Number exactly? It is too large for us to even know, but we do know that it is still 0% of infinity. There are infinity numbers larger than Graham’s number.

How complicated is this universe…………

### TREE(3)

We knew you had a thirst for more, so now for something even larger than Graham’s number. TREE(3) is the third number in another in incomprehensibly rapidly increasing series. In this series, the third term is already larger than Graham’s Number (which was the 64th item in its series). The TREE sequence emerges out of graph theory.

The rule defining the sequence is that you build ‘trees’ out of three colours of dots connected by lines. You start with a dot and you keep expanding it outwards from there, but as long as a tree doesn’t contain any previous tree in the sequence anywhere within it. From this the series is:

TREE(1) = 2

TREE(2) = 5

TREE(3) = a number vastly vastly larger than Graham’s Number

It just takes off so incredibly fast that it astounds mathematicians. How do these simple rules produce such a dramatic result. What property causes this? Once again it is a case of exponentials to exponential amounts of exponentials. TREE(3) achieves a certain critical amount of complexity that it opens the possibility of branches to other branches and etc., which grow to vast numbers and which do end surprisingly, but only after a very long time. Meaning….it is still 0% as large as infinity.

For a longer but more visual demonstration, check out the Numberphile episode:

## 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + … = -1/12

Wait what!? This is one of the most counter-intuitive results in all of mathematics and thus creates a lot of controversy whenever it is brought up. However, the proof is so simple and logical that it convinces most people.

The sum of the natural numbers is infinity right?

Well, in string theory, the result -1/12 is sometimes relied upon.

This is concerning and the proof is going to drive you insane

``````S       = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ....
S₁      = 1 - 1 + 1 - 1 .... = 1/2
(if you stop it after a ‘1’ you get 1, if you stop it after a ‘-1’ you get -1, so the answer is the average of those two possibilities)
2S₂     = 1 - 2 + 3 - 4 ....
+ 1 - 3 + 3 - 4 ....
= 1 - 1 + 1 - 1 + 1 ...
(We multiplied the two previous series and doubled it, but adding the second one on ‘shifted’ one number along. Then we arrived at S₁ again surprisingly)
= 1/2
S₂      = 1/4
S - S₂  = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ....
-(1 - 2 + 3 - 4 ....)
= 4   +   8   +   12 ....
= 4(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ....)
= 4S
∴
S - 1/4 = 4S
3S      = -1/4
S       = -1/12``````

This was also a proof from a Numberphile video (a great YouTube channel). You can read the comments to see some of the contention surrounding this result. One view is that equals should not be used, but instead ‘is represented by’.

## There Are Truths That Will Always Be Beyond The Limits Of Mathematics

Gödel’s incompleteness theorems confirmed the fear at the heart of mathematics—that there are some truths that cannot be proven by a system of rules.

How did Gödel manage to prove something so absolute about all that which is unprovable? His proof is very unique and interesting.

Gödel investigated paradoxes. A verbal example of a paradox is the Liar Paradox which is most simply expressed as “I am lying”. If the person who says this is lying, they are telling the truth and therefore not lying. If they are telling the truth, they are lying and therefore telling the truth. This statement doesn’t yield True or False, it is a contradiction.

Voicing verbal paradoxes doesn’t create black holes, but it does express paradoxes that may actually exist in the logical/mathematical basis of the universe. Gödel proved that there are ‘inconsistencies’ in mathematics, i.e. that paradoxes exist that simply cannot be proved

The classic example of a mathematical paradox is ‘The set of all sets that don’t contain themselves’. If this set doesn’t contain itself, then it satisfies the criteria for the set, so it must contain itself and therefore is disqualified from the criteria from the set. This is very much like a mathematical translation of the Liar’s paradox. So Gödel asks, can this ever be proved?

Gödel assigned every mathematical statement a unique code number and proved that any true mathematical statement would have a code number that could be deduced from the code numbers of the basic truth axioms in mathematics. For instance ‘a + b = b + a’ is an axiom of mathematics that is used along with other basic axioms to solve complex problems. Incorrect statements like ‘2 + 2 = 5’ have code numbers that can’t be derived from the axioms. However, what about the statement ‘This statement cannot be proved from the axioms’? This statement has a truth that cannot be proven within rules of any axiomatic system.

## Best Customer Reviews That Aren’t All 5-Star (Funniest, Most Helpful, Nicest)

We already had a laugh at the worst customer reviews we have ever seen, but now, the best customer reviews we have ever seen are also funny, but in an intentional way this time.

## Firstly, why are we writing these?

We wrote Worst Customer Reviews Of All Time That Will Make You Laugh Furiously to show customers how not to review businesses and which reviews that businesses should try to get rid of. This was based on our personal business experience with bad reviews (not because we are a bad company, but because we have >1.7 million customers, so some of our reviewers….are not going to be the best statistically speaking).

Now in this article about the best customer reviews, we intend to show customers how to write a good review and businesses how to spot one

## What to do if someone gives your business a good review?

You should:

• Reply to their review with a big thanks
• Private message them with a special offer to show your thanks
• Private message them to ask if it’s ok if you use their review on your website as a testimonial. You should offer an additional reward for this

## Now for some of the best reviews ever!

We will sort these into categories to bring to light the aspects that make up a good review.

### Funniest Reviews

These may not be the best reviews in any other aspect, but they sure are funny.

#### Denon AKDL1 Dedicated Link Cable

★★★★★

“The cable knew where to go, and hooked itself into the correct ports without help from me.”

—Harmless Gryphon

#### Tuscan Dairy Whole Vitamin D Milk, Gallon, 128 oz

★★★★★ Freshness is key

This was by far the freshest milk I have ever tasted. It still had that ‘new milk smell’.

I poured some in strategic spots in my house and car, so I can enjoy the smell for weeks to come.

#### Sigma Ultra-Telephoto Zoom Lens

★★★★★

Took this bad boy to the top of the Chrysler building and threw it off. It shattered into a million pieces, exactly as expected. Completely satisfied, would highly recommend.

#### UFO-02 Detector

★☆☆☆☆

A HUman Person From Earth Like You Hates Alien Detectors!

by A Trustworthy Human

I, as a resonable and trUstworthy hUman, do not gleep nerp this ungood prodUct. Bad it is for Us hUmans to purchase and opperate this online pUrchasable prodUct.

As the person from Earth that I am, I think that all of my other fellow hUmans on Earth should immediately disUse and florgnify this Utterly Zorglefran, I mean bad item for bUying. Ha Ha. I am laughing with hUmor with the funny word I made up with my typing that I am not doing by direct thought extraction, and instant data transmission to Amazon.com website. Ha Ha. That was highly hUmoroUs and glerp.

UFO detectors are so dUmb because all humans from Earth like the one I am, know that we I mean they do not even exist! Ha Ha

Besides even if the alien friends did exist, who minds occassional anal probe for benefit of aliens that don’t exist glerp science! I, as a resonable and trustworthy human person from Earth sure wouldn’t mind helping our fUtUre overlords!

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Ok this last one is very funny so we included it here, but it does have the pitfall of still being a one-star review. For a business, one-star reviews are always more serious than funny so if your business got this review, you would have to message this alien and come to some agreement about changing the star rating probably in exchange for publicising this comment.

#### Dukes at Queens, Belfast

★★★★☆

Good all round!

Positives: bed was really comfy, shower great, breakfast had a good variety and was tasty, nice bar with good cocktails, good location and nice reception staff.

Negatives: room could do with a repaint, tv remote was temperamental and bath hose was broken.

Overall a great stay and would definitely stay here again.

Stayed: September 2017

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This is a good review not because it gives the hotel a high rating. It actually gives it one less than 5/5 stars. It is good because it concisely lists the positives and negatives in a way that is fair and also useful for both other customers and the business. If the business wants to increase its service to five-stars in this consumer’s eyes, it knows exactly what to do.

#### Carbon Coco Teeth Whitening

★★★★★ Great customer support!

The delivery of my order got a bit delayed by a couple of days but that’s my fault. I didn’t know that I gave an incomplete address so my order was sent back. Thankfully, the folks at Carbon Coco were nice enough to tell me about the problem and they even re-sent my order for free. I’ve been using it for a couple of weeks now and so far, I’m pretty happy with the results.

——————————————————————————————

This is a testimonial for just one aspect of the product—the customer support. Customer support is crucial to customer’s trust when ordering online, and one of the best ways to gain trust is through testimonials, so this is exactly the kind of review you would want to showcase as a business.

I like how the review is just a factual recount of an experience—very trustworthy. Also, it isn’t over-the-top lauding the product. Most reviews are either overly positive or overly negative, but this review that says that he is “pretty happy with the results” is more realistic.

#### Philips Sonicare AirFloss

★☆☆☆☆ Good Product but not at all recommended

I have purchased two of these in last 2 years owing to the fact the they are really useful when they work but will just die all of sudden. Great product in terms of what it does but noting the price and the life span, it is not at all recommended. My issue with the airflosser has been that it will turn on but will not floss i.e. there will be no air and water/mouthwash droplets that will come out of it.

——————————————————————————————

This is what would be considered a ‘bad review’. It is one-star and points out a pretty serious product flaw. However, it is the best kind of bad review, because it tells you the business what you can improve. This reviewer is not furious or hysterical, they acknowledge the strengths of the product however note that these can’t shine because of the serious flaw.

The customer support responds to this review very well. It says:

Hi, Maldee. Thanks for sharing your experience on this platform. However, we are sorry to hear that your Airfloss suddenly died. That isn’t supposed to happen, of course. Have you tried to charge the appliance for 24 hours yet? This sometimes does the trick. If this doesn’t work and you would like more assistance, please give us a call! This is our phone number in Australia: 1300 363 391.

Kind regards, The Philips Australia Team

### Nicest Reviews

We’re going to end this on a nice note. Here are reviews that are just nice. They make the business feel good, and give them some very powerful customer testimonials.

#### China Southern Airlines

★★★★★ this is perfect!

flight is on time. staff is very warm, helpful and kind. i am really satisfied with all on board service and very happy with this trip.

——————————————————————————————

This review is nice because it compliments the staff and really, it ticks all the boxes for a good review. It lists every important aspect of China Southern Airlines as being perfect. If your business gets a review like this, what more can you ask for?

#### Toyota Prius

★★★★★ Best car I ever owned

Using this car is always a good driving experience. The performance and handling is very good. The interior is roomy and quiet and very easy for a tall person to enter and exit the car. The car is very reliable. Running costs are low due to the hybrid design. Petrol consumption around city and suburbs with constant short trips returns about 5.6–5.8 litres/100 klms but on a recent freeway trip of 120 kms it used only 3.7 litres/100 even including 2 stops. There are too many features to mention. Has travelled 110,000 klms and I have had it since about 80,000 klms on the clock. I would buy another for sure.

——————————————————————————————

This review sincerely claims that this car is the best he has ever owned. It’s a powerful commendation that would surely influence other prospective customers. Furthermore, this review could easily fit in the ‘Most Helpful Reviews’ category also. It goes into the specifications and stats in a way that is useful and that tells you that this guy knows what he is talking about.

## Worst Customer Reviews Of All Time That Will Make You Laugh Furiously

Business owners know the scourge of the internet upon their businesses: bad reviews by terrible customers. Some customers are just not in a good mood, and some just do not get it. We know, at dLook (a directory with over 1.7 million customers), we have had our fair share of unfair to downright deranged reviews, but this article isn’t out of frustration. No way……..

## Titanic (1997) (Amazon)

★☆☆☆☆

this could never happen

oh yeah a boat this big could really sink

★☆☆☆☆

One Star

I am eighty five

## Jurassic World (2015) (Amazon)

★★☆☆☆

what happened two the teradactor that flew away

what happened two the teradactor that flew away

## The Grand Budapest Hotel (Amazon)

★☆☆☆☆

Cheers to the drones!

Right on?? Those of you who are familiar with a post-modernist view of the absurd or nihilism take heed. Anderson has hit the nail on the head here with reverence towards pen-ultimate stupidity. Throw in a protagonist who’s obsessed with necrophilia and and antagonist who’s the opposite. Ohhhh. Brilliant? Let’s get on the write’s wagon with building empathy for the sociopath. Ummm. Dexter? Bored? You should be. If you have a mind. You’re in for a treat that will entertain your mindless mind. Mind you, you’re then you’re the concierge. And y. You’re probably a zombie. Liberal fascism at its best. Cheers!

——————————————————————————————

This is the worst attempt at an intellectual review that we have ever read. I have no idea what his actual point is, but the part I really don’t get is when he says ‘mindless mind. Mind you’….like that is the strangest attempt at wit, I just think this guy needs to mature a bit.

## Furby Orangutan (Amazon)

DEMONS

★☆☆☆☆

THESE THINGS ARE DEMONIC CREATURES AND NEED TO GO BACK TO HELL WHERE THEY BELONG!!! AND BE DISCONTINUED FOREVER!!! GOOD RIDENCE!

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This Texan mom is certainly creepy out by this fluffy toy. The phenomenon is not new, in fact so many people were creeped out by Furby’s that The Simpsons made an episode about it. But nevertheless, it is a bit of an overreaction isn’t it.

## Madagascar (Full Screen Edition) (Amazon)

★☆☆☆☆

Animals Leave Babylon (NYC) for Madagascar: Another Speilberg Holocaust Movie?

Hitler’s original ‘Final Solution to the Jewish Problem’ was to send the Jews to Madagascar, which I think would have been a better place than Palestine.

This movie takes animals from the heart of Babylon (a city of commerce & confusion) on a journey similar to the transports of Jews to the concentration camps.

I liked the party animals in Magagascar the best (love to party with ’em. liked the music). Unfortunately the party is crashed by meat eating cat-like creatures.

The only animal that I really liked was the psychedelic zebra. The hippo was a lovely voice, without a body to match. The psychedelic trips the lion took was cool too.

Yet, the animals, like Jews escaping slavery with Moses long for the fleshpots of NYC.

Loved the animation, laughed a few times but found the movie scary!

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My lord, what can be made of this one? Honestly this was more insane than any extreme opinion review. Just the associations that he draws are so loose, it makes me worry.

## Normal, no? (Yelp)

★☆☆☆☆

I went to this restaurant and liked the food. but then the server leaned over me and whispered ‘would you like a side of death with that?’

then he took my fettuccine and formed a pentagram on my table. no one acknowledged me after that.

don’t go here. or do. whichever

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Hahaha what!? Now for a serving of nuts, anyone? Did this guy have some kind of episode at this restaurant? There are so many possibilities here. Why does he say ‘or do. whichever’ at the end? That just tops it off, this is the best.

## This Poor Pizza Place Was Too Good (Yelp)

★☆☆☆☆

Don’t try the pizza, it’s so good you will come back every day, it completely ruined my social life cause each night I only want to go there

I hate this place!

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Ok, maybe this guy is trying to be funny, but he is still a terrible reviewer that you do not want to visit your restaurant. This pizza restaurant is someone’s business, and this guy didn’t think that leaving a one-star review, even as a joke, would be harmful to this business.

## Fluker’s Gourmet Canned River Shrimp (Amazon)

★☆☆☆☆

Fluker’s canned river shrimp

Was very misleading. My son had experienced trying different edible bugs at school and wanted to try these. Then when he go them and read the can, it stated that they were not for human consumption. AFTER he had eaten some…

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This one made the list because it tells the heartwarming story of a son who is having nre experiences trying different edible bugs at this stage in his childhood.

## Moo Baa La La La (Amazon)

★★★☆☆

Could confuse kids A great story about animal sounds. Most of the sounds are accurate, however I have a problem with the 3 singing pigs…would they really sing ‘La, La, La’? Would a child recognize Boynton’s use of rhyme and really ‘get it’? I think not…I’m having a hard time now, when I took my son to the farm and he was saying ‘La La La’ at the pigs…while all the other kids were saying ‘oink’ or were more accurately making a snorting sound. Their parents looked at my son as if he was not as smart as their genius kids who knew the proper pig sounds.

Thanks Ms. Boynton…thanks a lot.

——————————————————————————————

This one is a bit sad. I just feel sorry for this mother who clearly has a complex about her son’s intelligence, and the child who will grow up with this kind of over-competitive parenting.

## Taco Santo

★☆☆☆☆

The entire kitchen and wait staff saw an ice cream truck and ran outside, leaving me alone in the restaurant. 10 minutes later they all come back with ice cream cones

I still can’t believe this actually happened.

## Source

The Amazon reviews are from the Tumblr page Least Helpful which compiles the best worst Amazon reviews.

## 1. Matter Is Energy And Energy Is Matter

To begin, the greatest [email protected]^k of 20th century physics–

E = mc2

Einstein’s formula is now so famous that few people know what it really means besides the nuclear bombing of Japan. It’s called the mass-energy equivalence formula and states that: energy (E) equals mass (m) times the speed of light (c).

Therefore….

• All energy has a mass equal to its energy divided by the speed of light. Because the speed of light is so large (3 × 108m/s), this mass is negligible for non-astronomical, non-atomic quantities of energy.
• On the flip side of this coin, all mass has vast amounts of energy stored within it. Even say, a golf ball at rest has atomic quantities of energy that can theoretically be released. Atomic fission and fusion act to release these energies by converting mass into energy.

E = mc2 is a profound discovery contained within a beautifully precise equation. It’s the perfect example of how a brief equation can hold immense power for both construction (nuclear energy) and destruction (nuclear warfare).

## 2. Micro-Black Holes Could Exist That Are Smaller Than This Full Stop: . (And Most Of The Universe Is Made Of Them)

It’s not that crazy….to think that tiny black holes could be flying through space at undetectably high speeds that formed at the time of the Big Bang.

Clearly this outcome was deducted from theoretical physics, but why would anyone come to such an outlandish conclusion? It’s to explain what the universe is made of. They know that the universe is only 20% matter, it is 80% dark matter. However, they have been searching for years without success to detect this dark matter. This hypothesis provides the discomforting alternative explanation that 80% of matter in the universe is in fact black holes, however most of them are too small and fast-moving to effect us.

## 3. The Observer Effect Of Quantum Theory

This one sounds like something an art teacher would say, but is actually deeply rooted in quantum theoretical physics. An experiment was conducted that shone light through a ‘double slit’ (two narrow openings). The question is: if light is a particle, it will go straight through the two slits, producing two neat lines of light on the opposing wall. Or, if it is a wave, it will diffract through the slits and produce a diffraction pattern on the wall. Here’s the mind-blowing part: if the experiment is recorded with a tool that measures particles, it shows two lines on the wall. Or, if the experiment is recorded with a tool that measures waves, it shows the light acting like waves, it shows a diffraction pattern on the wall. Therefore, the actual universe has a subjective element to it, because light is both a wave and a particle, depending on how it is measured.

## 4. The Universe Is A Hologram Of A Lower-Dimensional Space

Can you imagine being one of the Japanese researchers on this theory and bending your mind to think of the universe in such a divergent way. Holograms are devices that are able to project 3-dimensions from a 2-dimensional film by splitting the direction of light into at least two directions that meet at an exterior focal point. It doesn’t matter if this is overly complicated, just that it proves that the 3D can stored in and projected from the 2D. In 1997 these researchers theorised that our entire universe may be like this. The 3D space that we inhabit, gravity and even time could be projected from this lower, flatter space

Why would the universe be a hologram, as opposed to what we directly see? Researches this year have found evidence suggesting that the holographic universe theory can explain the irregularities in cosmic background radiation. This discovery could be the key to relating Einstein’s theory of gravity to quantum theory, which would be groundbreaking, not to mention revolutionising our entire view of the universe.

## 5. Gravity Is Made Of Particles

In the same way as the electromagnetic force is known to be composed of photons, gravity may be composed of ‘gravitons’. This relates to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence proof that requires waves to have a mass (particle) counterpart.

If gravitons do exist, we could make them in our particle accelerators. The ability to manufacture gravity would be absolutely revolutionary and sci-fi, but would require some major leaps before vertical walkways become safe for the general public. Firstly, if it is possible to create gravitons, they would disappear into extra dimensions almost instantly, hence why it is so hard to even observe or prove them.

## 6. Our ‘Universe’ May Be Contained Within A Giant Black Hole

Our universe may have been created within a giant black hole that exists within another universe. It’s an unsettling theory but it’s based on the mathematics of what occurs when matter falls into a black hole. For obvious reasons, the theory has not been tested practically, but if true, all black holes could contain entire other universes.

## 7. The Universe Has 11 Dimensions

This outcome of string theory (called M-Theory) posits that the universe has not 4 dimensions (3 space dimensions + time), but 11 dimensions. Since being formulated in the 20th century, no experimental evidence has be found to support 11 dimensions, but the mathematical elegance of this theory, coupled with its vast implications has attracted a large following.

The science-fiction following of M-Theory is the main reason that so many people know about it. Some science-fiction actually makes some fairly valid points as well. The Three-Body Problem by Liu Cixin includes a single proton being unfolded into 11 dimensions (embedded in our 4 dimensions), making it many times larger than the universe (but infinitismally thin). In 11 dimensions, there is enough space-time and complexity for entire universes potentially containing life to exist (within each proton). Keep in mind that this is still untested science-fiction we are talking about however.

Also note, that M-Theory is not the only extra-dimensional theory within String Theory. Bosonic String Theory posits 26 dimensions!

## 8. Events In The Present Can Affect What Happened In The Past

Quantum theory just gets stranger the deeper you go into it. You are probably still coming to terms with how a subatomic particle on one side of the universe can effect another on the other side of the universe. But a 2007 experiment observed that a particle in the present can affect another one in the past.

This raises so many questions, but hopefully this kind of explains it…. The researchers in 2007 set out to explain the mechanism for the Observer Effect in the aforementioned double slit experiment. It turns out that if you observe a particle as having acted as either a wave or a particle, then it will cause it to have acted that way back in time.

Hypothetically this could imply that if we observe light from distant stars as being either waves or particles, then this can change what state they were in millions of years in the past.

## Vim Mapping Epiphanies That I Havn’t Seen Anywhere Else

As a Vim user, you will know the ecstatic sense of epiphany that you get when you think of a mapping or setting that can change your life. Each item in this list is a mapping that came to me through ‘epiphany’ that I havn’t seen elsewhere on the internet, even though they are quite simple. I use Vim mainly for writing, but also for code and these mappings have each revolutionised my productivity in both.

## Reverse Enter

This is the mapping that has improved my life immeasurably that I can’t believe no one else uses. All it does is line-break up rather than down. It’s not as simple as you think to make this happen, because the linebreak character breaks down as you may know, and there is no up-linebreak character. This is why it needs to use the VIM-Schlepp plugin because it adds a normal linebreak, then switches the order of the original line and the new one below. There are definitely non-plugin ways to map this, but Schlepp just works so seamlessly.

" Reverse Enter
inoremap <S-CR> <CR><C-o><Plug>SchleppUp

## Move And Duplicate Text In Any Direction With One Key

To have true power over your text, you want to be able to move and also duplicate it up, down, left or right with just one key. It’s extremely satisfying to be able to do this, and especially efficient when editing code.

VIM-Schlepp is a plugin that provides plugs for shifting and also duplicating text. I assign the ‘A-h,j,k,l<Up>,<Down>,<Left>,<Right>’ keys to these things.

" VIM-Schlepp
vmap <unique> <A-k> <Plug>SchleppUp
vmap <unique> <A-j> <Plug>SchleppDown
vmap <unique> <A-l> <Plug>SchleppLeft
vmap <unique> <A-h> <Plug>SchleppRight
vmap <unique> <A-S-k> <Plug>SchleppIndentUp
vmap <unique> <A-S-j> <Plug>SchleppIndentDown
vmap <unique> <A-Up> <Plug>SchleppDupUp
vmap <unique> <A-Down> <Plug>SchleppDupDown
vmap <unique> \$ <Plug>SchleppDupDown
vmap <unique> <A-Left> <Plug>SchleppDupLeft
vmap <unique> <A-Right> <Plug>SchleppDupRightde

You may have noticed that I also mapped duplicate-line-downwards to ‘\$’ because I want an easy-to-reach mapping because I use it so frequently.

Then there are some non-plugin mappings for simplifying indenting (moving text left and right) through using the same keys:

" Indent using arrow keys
nnoremap <A-h> <<
nnoremap <A-l> >>
vnoremap <A-h> <gv
vnoremap <A-l> >gv
nnoremap <A-left> <<
nnoremap <A-right> >>

Then I also simplified the default ‘<<’, ‘>>’ indent mappings by making them a single key. This isn’t always recommended because you may want to make mappings like ‘<o’, ‘<p’.

" Indent simplification
nnoremap > a<C-t><Esc>
nnoremap < a<C-d><Esc>
vnoremap > >gv
vnoremap < <gv

## More Consistent, Less Key-chording Visual Select Line And To End-of-Line

By default, visual select line is ‘V’, and visual select to end-of-line is ‘v\\$’. I remapped select to end-of-line to ‘V’ to be consistent with the (questionable) pattern that capital letter performs action to end-of-line (e.g. ‘Y’, ‘D’, ‘C’). Then, I remapped visual select line to ‘v’ in visual mode. Therefore, to select a line, you just press ‘vv’ (the first works in normal mode, then the second works when you’re in visual mode).

" Select to end of line visual mode
nnoremap V v\$
vnoremap v V
vnoremap V \$

## Join Lines Upwards

‘J’ joins the current line to the one below, but when you want to join the current line to the one above, you need to do ‘kJ’. This is not seamless, especially when you want to join say the next three several above, and you end up mashing the keyboard with ‘kJkJkJkJ….’. That’s why I made the join-line-above mapping for ‘K’ because you can just hold it down to repeat easily.

" Join lines upwards
nnoremap K k0J

The first mapping there remaps the default ‘K’ key (lookup keyword) to some other key so you can still use it.

## Backspace And Delete In Normal Mode

‘Backspace’ and ‘Delete’ do basically nothing in normal mode by default. Why not map them to delete words quickly?

Furthermore, ‘Control-Backspace’ and ‘Control-Delete’ are mapped to operate on entire lines.

" Normal mode backspace, delete
nmap <BS> db
nmap <Del> dw
nnoremap <C-BS> ddk
nnoremap <C-Del> dd

## Redo to most recent change

Remap the counter-intuitive ‘U’ key to something that will save you from pressing like 15 times in a row.

" Redo to most recent change
nnoremap U 999<C-r>

## Kill Buffers With One Key

This is the simplest one in the list: ‘:bd’ using just the ‘-’ key which is not useful by default (it is just another upwards-movement key).

" Kill buffer not window
nnoremap – :Bdelete<CR>

## One-key Cycle Through Buffers

Another epiphany that hit me like something that I should have thought of long ago. Cycle through buffers using just the ‘Tab’ key.

" Cycle through buffers
nnoremap <silent> <Tab> :silent bnext<CR>
nnoremap <silent> <S-Tab> :silent bprevious<CR>

## Cycle Through Windows Using Important, Easy-to-reach Keys

Cycling through windows is something that you probably find yourself doing a lot, so you want to map some important, easy-to-reach keys to do it. This is what I decided to dedicate to it, because it is so easy to press it is almost instantaneous.

" Cycle through windows
nnoremap <S-Space> <C-w>w
nnoremap <C-Space> <C-w>W

I find this to be a faster alternative to mapping ‘<C-h,j,k,l>’ because you don’t have to even think about the direction, and it saves all your precious ‘<C-h,j,k,l>’ keys.

## The Age Where Anyone Can Track Anyone (Researchers Prove How) And How You And Your Business Can Maintain Privacy

If you value your privacy or would prefer that certain people not have the ability to know your exact location, then you will be disconcerted by this study from the University of Washington published in the last few days….

## Researchers Prove You Can Track Anyone’s Location Using Mobile Ads For Just \$1000

The method of the study involves trying to track one of the research group members around Seattle using online ads, with a budget of \$1000. As much as this sounds like an augmented reality game, it played out as a info-security-conscious individual’s worst nightmare.

How it works:

1. The researchers created a website and a mobile banner ad
2. They then spent \$1000 (the minimum deposit) buying ad spaces for this banner ad on a platform that allows you to target ads to specific demographics. These platforms include Google AdWords and Facebook ads, however the researchers didn’t reveal the actual online ad platform used because they argue that they are all equally privacy-infringing.
3. They targeted their ads to a grid of locations around 3 square miles of Seattle.
4. They specified their ads to appear on the calling and texting app Talkatone (an app that displays ads).
5. Whenever the researcher being tracked opened Talkatone near one of the targeted locations, the ad would appear to him and the researchers doing the tracking would be notified of the specific location and specific phone that received the ad. Each time this happens, they were charged just 2 cents.

The researchers were able to track the test subject’s location within a distance of under 8 meters, with just a 6 minute delay. Over the 7-day test period, they were also able to ascertain the subject’s home and work addresses.

The researchers hypothesised that even deeper and more personal information can be retrieved via this method by targeting specific apps on people’s phone. If you target a homosexual dating app for instance, and the person you are tracking is reached by the ad, they you can ascertain that they are probably attracted to the same sex.

This is a disturbing finding because anyone can be the victim of stalking, terrorism or manipulation through these new digital means.

## What This Means: Even If A Big Company Isn’t Paying That Much Attention To You, Anyone Can

The number 1 thing that protects our privacy in this info-security-dystopian day-and-age is that even though big companies can spy on you if they want to, they don’t because they don’t need to and don’t have the resources to spy on everyone. But even if we do feel an oblique sense of security because of this, this study proves that anyone can spy on you. I.e. even if big companies like Google and Facebook don’t care where you go every Saturday morning, maybe one of these people do:

• An aggressive salesman
• An old enemy
• A stalker
• A criminal
• A political opponent

There would be countless people reading about this study and thinking to themselves: this is how I can spy on this person, and that thought is very concerning (and also a lot of people thinking this specific person can spy on me). But there is at least something constructive to be taken away from this paper–

## What This Calls For: Concerned Individuals And Companies Read This

If you find this paper as alarming as we do, as a privacy-conscious individual or as a company that wants to secure its own privacy and those of its customers, you should do the following.

Increasing amounts of people are using ad-blocking software for security reasons, not just focus and sanity-preserving reasons. This paper is actually just the cherry on top of the ad-block community’s (e.g. r/adblock)’s argument that online ads compromise your privacy and information security. If you were waiting for an ethical reason to block ads, there it is. You can install what is currently regarded as the best ad-blocker plugin for your browser (uBlock Origin) on these pages: Chrome, Firefox.

If you want to be really really secure from desktop ads, don’t use Windows, use Linux instead. This is because Windows started integrating ads into its operating system which is the ultimate OS faux pas, but it’s Windows so most people including us can’t really avoid using it.

Now for mobile ad-blocking (most importantly). You can install ad-blockers on mobile browsers. Firefox for Android and iOS allows you to install addons, which mobile Chrome doesn’t, however an in-built Chrome ad-blocker is in Beta right now. There’s also Firefox Focus and Adblock Browser which you can check out.

The reason that mobile ad blocking is more difficult is because of the abundance of in-app advertisements like those in Talkatone. The no-ad philosophy of software development didn’t seem to make it to the smartphone app, and now in-app ads have become accepted (it’s horrible). Thankfully there are some ways to block in-app ads.

### How To Protect Your Business’s And Customer’s Privacy Against Online Ads (Especially If You Do Web Or App Development)

Protect your customer’s privacy if you do web or app development for them. The ultimate form of protection would be not including ads in apps and sign-in websites that can reveal sensitive information about the user. For instance, an Irritable Bowel Syndrome tracker app should not include ads. If you do include ads on any websites and apps you develop, you should definitely look into the ways that you can secure the ad containers to make them less vulnerable to being exploited by people with intentions like the researchers in this study. The steps to do this are technical and beyond the scope of this article, but definitely do some research because this issue is only becoming more pertinent as we move into the future.

## Why Is Australia Wealthy And Will This Continue Into The Future?

If you live in Australia, have you ever questioned why this country is so wealthy and fortunate. It seems so natural that Australia is a developed country, even though this is a fairly uncommon status among the countries of the world. Only 20% of the world’s population live in developed countries as of 2016 (Source). For a country that is mostly desert, with a declining manufacturing sector, and almost unmatched high wages, how is it so prosperous? Then, with each reason for this, will this continue into the future?

## 1. Mineral Exports

The number one reason for Australia’s wealth is that, across its vast, mostly uninhabited landscape it is gifted with large amounts of mineral deposits. Australia is the world’s leading producer of iron ore, the second largest producer of lead, zinc and gold, the third largest of uranium, the forth largest of black coal, nickel and silver and the list goes on (Source). Mineral exports are the main reason why Australia’s trade balance is usually in surplus, with 2017’s being \$3.1 billion despite a growth in imports.

It’s thanks to the government’s taxes on these mining companies that the revenues from Australia’s minerals get distributed to the Australian people’s in the form of government services and welfare. The actual percentage of the Australian population working in the mining sector is very low (1.6% in 2010) due to the high amount of automation used by these mining companies. However, those who do work in this sector generally enjoy high (\$100k+) wages.

Future trends: There has been much speculation surrounding Australia’s ‘mining boom’ (2003–2016), particularly when it ended and whether there will be a ‘mining bust’ afterwards. The general (general general general) consensus is that it officially ended in 2016. Now, the boom is over but mining exports and commodity prices have still maintained a high level. The bust that was expected by some never came, so we can be fairly confident of Australia’s mining future.

## 2. Food Exports

Another benefit of Australia’s vast landmass is that it has the space to produce large quantities of food. Australia is one of the world’s largest food exporters and most of its food consumption is of local food products.

Australian meat is world renown, especially in Asia where it fetches high prices. Australian beef and lamb are particularly lucrative exports.

Australia also produces large amounts of grains, including rice and wheat and exports them. Asia imports a lot of Australian rice particularly.

Future trends: If there’s one industry that you can count on, it’s food, particular basic foods like grain and meat. People aren’t going to stop eating and the populations of the world aren’t going to stop increasing. Global food prices aren’t always on the upward trend that you would expect however, and this is because of improvements in agricultural methods (Source). However, this is the kind of price decrease that is caused by increases in efficiency, so producers don’t lose out (because they are just producing more at a lower price, hence getting approximately the same revenue).

## 3. Tourism

Australia runs one of the largest-scale international marketing campaigns to promote its tourism and it definitely pays off. Tourism represented 3% of the country’s GDP in 2014/15, which is 47.5AUD (Source).

Future trends: Tourism is also looking strong in Australia’s future, with growth rates at 10% per annum. This is the kind of growth rate that classifies us as being in a tourism boom right now. Tourism is very sensitive to global financial conditions however, because it is a luxury that people need to be able to afford, so if a global financial crisis does happen, then tourism will drop and need time to recover again. Nevertheless, the long term forecast is positive.

## 4. Highly Skilled, High Tech Sectors

Finally, as a country with a strong education system, we have healthy highly skilled and high tech sectors. These include medical technology (e.g. prosthetics, bionic ears) and robotics. (This seems to be the way of the future for Australian employment because of the forces of outsourced labour and automation that are occurring now and into the future.)

Future trends: These sectors seem promising even though it is my opinion that the government should be doing a lot more to foster them. Kindling a technology sector requires Silicon Valley-type government assistance to get it going. We should be spending a lot more on R&D and on a Silicon Valley-type area. If so, this would be a bright future for Australia because right now, most people are benefiting from Australia’s wealth from the above factors, but not actually playing a part in it in their work.

## The Ultimate Unicode Trick Manual For Artists, Social Media, Writers And Marketers

Do you get a small feeling of excitement when seeing a character on a page that is not 0-9, A-z? Do you want to ????? ?? your social media posts, writing and digital art with the full range and capabilities of text that computers can handle. This post is a must-read for anyone bored of normal text. (Ｕｎｉｃｏｄｅ ｉｓ ｎｏｔ ｆｏｒ ｎｏｒｍｉｅｓ)

## Extremely Brief Explanation Of Unicode

Unicode is the text encoding standard that includes hundreds of thousands of characters. Basically, it lets any computer and web browser view characters like this 漢 and this ? (as long as the font supports it) and also includes some special features that we will show you. This was a great step up from the previous leading standard which was ASCII that was not much more than 0-9, A-z and hence alienated the whole of Asia and the Middle East.

## Special Characters

The standard typing characters aren’t enough for some bands. The witch house genre includes many cool examples of bands using nonstandard/‘special’ characters in their band and song titles. For instance, the band Black Ceiling is often stylised as BL▲CK † CEILING and has song titles including †† [like a prayer].

Another possibility is using the script of a non-English language. In fact, this is by far the most common use of Unicode special characters. For instance, take the excellent song Machine Girl – 覆面調査員 (GabberTrap Mix) [Frenesi remix]. This allows you to include non-English scripts in writing, translations on webpages and exotic characters in your digital art. Translation to Arabic: هذا يسمح لك لتشمل النصوص غير الإنجليزية في الكتابة والترجمات على صفحات الويب والأحرف الغريبة في الفن الرقمي الخاص بك.

## Right-To-Left

You may have noticed something about that previous Arabic translation. Arabic is conventionally written right-to-left rather than English which is always left-to-right.

Unicode includes a feature called ‘bidirectional text’ which allows text to go from left-to-right. Arabic script, when in a text on its own will go right-to-left unless formatting is applied. However, in a text with left-to-right characters, it will go left-to-right. In order to have both directions within the same text, you must use a special character called a left-to-right mark to indicate where this directionality starts, then a right-to-left mark for where it ends. Here’s an example from this site. Compare:

The title is “مفتاح معايير الويب!” in Arabic.

Versus

The title is “مفتاح معايير الويب!‏” in Arabic.

The second one has a left-to-right marker that reverses the applicable Arabic text so that the entire thing is written in reverse order. Nifty.

Using these markers does require a bit of fiddling around though and it’s a bit difficult because they are invisible. There are text editors that display them however, such as Vim.

It should be noted that some scripts particularly Chinese and Japanese often run top-to-bottom. Unicode doesn’t have a feature that supports this because it is somewhat easy to achieve using formatting.

## Breaking And Spaces

There is more to spaces than just pressing the space bar, a lot more, and here is a quick run through of Unicode’s main ‘space’ characters.

Space: The space bar character. In HTML, multiple spaces are collapsed into one space.

Tab: A flexible width that goes up until the next imaginary horizontal line down the page. Used to align text but doesn’t work in most cases in HTML.

Carriage return: This is the Enter/newline character. Yes, despite appearances it is essentially a character.

Non-breaking space (nbsp): Like ‘Space’, except multiple nsbp aren’t collapsed into one in HTML. Furthermore, these are non-breaking like non-space characters. Basically, characters that aren’t spaces are treated like words when strung together, i.e. they never get cut in half by the right margin of the page. Non-breaking spaces act in the same way despite being spaces, i.e. you can ‘glue’ two words of characters together with one so that they won’t get separated by the page margin. A cool usage of nbsp that i’ve seen is to add a disconcertingly long separator within your Facebook name. Like: Kate Summer

Zero-width space: An invisible space character. It’s ‘breaking’ so it means you can insert it between two consecutive characters so that they will break even when they otherwise wouldn’t. E.g. you could insert it between the words in Zero​Width. Or, a common use is if you have a string of characters like ☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆​☆ and you want them to wrap, you insert a zero-width space between each one. and you want them to wrap, you insert a zero-width space between each one.

Joiners and Non-joiners: Types of spaces that causes otherwise unconnected words to be joined (Joiners) or connected words to be disconnected (Non-joiners). These are fairly advanced and rare characters.

A lot of different sizes of spaces: There are way more than just your standard space. They go from hair space ( ) all the way up to em space ( ).

Here’s an example of:

s   p

a  c

e    s

## Unicode Text Variants

Not everyone knows that you don’t need word processors and HTML/CSS to emphasise text and change fonts. You can do so much by just using Unicode characters even though it’s less convenient. But the main advantage is: you can post this almost anywhere, including on Facebook where most people think spicing up your message with ‘fonts’ is out of the question. This site is the go-to for Unicode text conversion. For instance, I want to write ‘Unicode rules!’ in some pretty ways:

Ⓤⓝⓘⓒⓞⓓⓔ ⓡⓤⓛⓔⓢ!

Ｕｎｉｃｏｄｅ ｒｕｌｅｓ！

??????? ?????!

??????? ?????!

??????? ?????!

¡sǝןnɹ ǝpoɔıun

And there are sooo many more variants than this.

There are even more variants when you use combining characters which we will talk about at the end. But check out this site if you want to underline text for instance:

U͟n͟i͟c͟o͟d͟e͟ r͟u͟l͟e͟s͟!͟

Or do some other weird thing like this:

U̷n̷i̷c̷o̷d̷e̷ r̷u̷l̷e̷s̷!̷

## Really Large Characters

There’s a thing called ‘fullwidth’ that makes a character take up two spaces in text. Also, there’s a thing called ‘variable-width spacing’ that makes printed characters not always have to have the same length. For instance ‘w’ is wider than ‘i’. Because of these two properties, some characters can be extremely large. Check out the following:

?

Also, interestingly, here is the most complex Chinese character by strokes (64): ?. And here is the densest one: 龘

## Combining Characters

Now for something really cool, check out this: ẃ̶̞̉o̴͍̎ẇ̷͖̿ọ̸̄͊w̶̲̬̳͌̌̀͑o̵͓͐w̷̟̠̰̿̀o̴̅͌͜w̴̘̔̂̈́̃ǫ̴̙̔͒̈́͑w̵̛̼̥̳͓̍͠ö̷͓́̈́͋̕ẁ̸̟̗̻

You can seriously have these things going all over the page using this tool or similar.

These little characters on top and below of the regular ones are called combining characters in Unicode.

You can do all sorts of things like this:

۫ͫ̈́̊̃͛͐̎̂̓̃̇͛̍ͪͩ́͒͆̓̉̽̍̏͂ͮ̈́ͦ̀ͤ͗̅͗̄̐̃ͬͮͣͩͮ̆̓́͛ͯͤͣͧ̔ͮ̈́ͯ̅۫ͫ̈́̊̃͛͐̎̂̓̃̇͛̍ͪͩ́͒͆̓̉̽̍̏͂ͮ̈́ͦ̀ͤ͗̅͗̄̐̃ͬͮͣͩͮ̆̓́͛ͯͤͣͧ̔ͮ̈́ͯ̅۫ͫ̈́̊̃͛͐̎̂̓̃̇͛̍ͪͩ́͒͆̓̉̽̍̏͂ͮ̈́ͦ̀ͤ͗̅͗̚̚̚̚̚̚̚̚_۫ͫ̈́̊̃͛͐̎̂̓̃̇͛̍ͪͩ́͒͆̓̉̽̍̏͂ͮ̈́ͦ̀ͤ͗̅͗̄̐̃ͬͮͣͩͮ̆̓́͛ͯͤͣͧ̔ͮ̈́ͯ̅۫ͫ̈́̊̃͛͐̎̂̓̃̇͛̍ͪͩ́͒͆̓̉̽̍̏͂ͮ̈́ͦ̀ͤ͗̅͗̄̐̃ͬͮͣͩͮ̆̓́͛ͯͤͣͧ̔ͮ̈́ͯ̅۫ͫ̈́̊̃͛͐̎̂̓̃̇͛̍ͪͩ́͒͆̓̉̽̍̏͂ͮ̈́ͦ̀ͤ͗̅͗̚̚̚̚̚̚̚̚

Basically, Unicode has these characters that don’t occupy a space on their own, instead they combine with the character next to them to modify it. There are a lot of these that allow you to add diacritical marks to any letter and this is useful when writing in other languages. For instance, you can create this letter x̅ if unicode doesn’t have that as a single character. You can do all kinds of things like strike-out characters, encircle, etc.

And now Unicode has Emoji combinations, which mean you can combine an emoji with a new emoji combining character to make what looks like a new emoji. For instance, you can modify the skin tone of some emojis using one of these combiners: ? ? ? ? ?. ? + ?= ??. Also, emojis in sequence with zero-width joiners in-between them can combine to make new emojis in some cases. For instance: ? + ❤ + ? + ? = ?‍❤️‍?‍?

## Now Get Creative

Now hopefully you have been opened up to a world in which the text that you enter on websites, text documents, word documents, Photoshop and music titles can be formatted in numerous ways. Your imagination is the greatest limit when it comes to combining characters, special characters, spacing, text direction and any combinations of those.

## How To Change Your Life With Reddit: For The Most Cutting-Edge Self-Improvers

Reddit is what I regard as one of the best sources of information on the internet. By ‘best’ I don’t entirely mean accuracy, I mean breadth, depth and multiple perspectives. It’s a forum with an unparalleled number of forum boards called ‘subreddits’ on everything in the entire world basically. It is the world’s go-to discussion place for everything in the world basically, and this is something that will change your life completely when you start to really use it.

## 1: Subscribe To The Subreddit For Every Significant Thing In Your Life

Are you a rock-climber? Subscribe here. Do you wear glasses? Subscribe here. Are you a male? Subscribe here.

I am subscribed to 951 subreddits, but this is after a year of using Reddit. Basically, I just looked up every aspect of my life and subscribed to it.

One of the main deficits of Reddit is the lack of subreddit suggestions. There is no algorithm that shows you subreddits you might like. In order to find new subreddits:

• Look in the sidebar of subreddits you like. There are often links to related subreddits.
• Look at Reddit’s List of Subreddits and go on a subscribing spree. This only lists subreddits with 50,000+ subscribers however.
• Google Reddit find subreddits (there are many more ways that you will find)

But to get you started, I will share with you a list of subreddits that changed my life the most:

Reddit has a strong self-improvement culture, and many of these subreddits are a large part of this. How have these subreddits changed my life personally? AdBlock has completely eliminated ads from my web, including in-page popups and requests for donations. Financial Independence has got my saving 60%+ of my income for early retirement. Posture got me doing an at-home workout twice daily that after 2 months has noticably improved my health and height. Male Fashion Advice has made me stop wearing hardcore band t-shirts and instead start dressing smart and ‘normcore’.

## 2: Look Into The Important Subreddits When You Get A Chance (And This Is How)

There’s a lot of subreddits for you to look through. Reddit has been described as a ‘smorgasbord of content’ for good reason. When you get a chance, look into the most important subreddits you subscribed to. But make sure you follow this guide to know the best way to go about this, because Reddit’s interface is not the most intuitive for first-time users.

Firstly, you want to download Reddit Enhancement Suite for Chrome or Firefox. It is a very sophisticated, customisable addon that makes traversing the labyrinths of Reddit far far easier. Seasoned Reddit users do all their browsing in a manner of a few keystrokes.

Secondly, you want to open the subreddit you want, then look at the tabs at the top. You will see: ‘hot’, ‘controversial’, ‘top’ and ‘wiki.’ These tabs are different ways of filtering what content to show you (the same content, but you see different posts first). When you click a tab, there will be an option underneath that says ‘links from: past 24 hours’. You want to set that to: ‘links from: all time’. The links from all time will be more hot, controversial, etc. than just the ones from the past 24 hours.

• ‘Hot’ posts are new and also very popular.
• ‘Wiki’ is what some subreddits have. It is a Wikipedia style information section that gives information about the topic of the subreddit.

## 3: Comment And Make Your Own Posts

Finally, in order to get the full experience of Reddit, you should engage in the conversation

Commenting comes first. For every post on Reddit there are numerous comments, and that ratio enables this forum to work. Imagine if Reddit had a reputation for posts not being answered. It would not be as popular as it is today. Therefore, Reddit and individual subreddits make sure to maintain this ratio by marking posts as spam if the user hasn’t made enough comments either on Reddit as a whole, or that individual subreddit. Therefore, if you want to post something, make sure you make some comments first. At the least, think of it as a social service. But it is more than that anyway. You are engaging in the world’s forum and seeing if what you say is accepted by it. It’s very good at allowing you to evaluate just how correct/funny/smart you are and then to improve in many ways. It should be noted that Reddit is the biggest sneer club in the world. So much of it’s content is based on deriding Other figures like neckbeards and edgy teens, but despite the obvious harmful effects of this (that outweigh the positives), it does cause a lot of people to change the aspects of their personality that resemble these negative stereotypes.

Then, after being a helpful member of these subreddits and accumulating enough comment karma (= upvotes – downvotes), you may decide to make your own post. You can ask for advice on an aspect of your life, you can share an idea you had, almost anything you want. Reddit commenters can be extremely helpful, often posting long and detailed comments in order to get karma. Karma is very very important to some people, and it’s understandable, because a high rank on the world’s forum is a thing of respect.

## 1. Clownhouse, Powder and the Jeepers Creepers franchise

Victor Salva, the creator of the well-known Jeepers Creepers horror film franchise was convicted for the molestation of the 12-year-old child actor in the lead role of his 1989 film Clownhouse. He was sentenced to 3 years in a state prison and served 15 months.

If you ever watch Clownhouse, the worst thing you can do is keep this in mind. The film is about three young brothers home alone whose house is invaded by three insane asylum escapees dressed as clowns. It plays out like a twisted child molestation story, and it’s clear that that’s what Victor Salva had in mind. The camera constantly close-ups on the boys’ crotch regions and on their partly undressed bodies.

As Victor Salva’s first film, this really reveals what kind of person he is, and his terrifying lack of self-control. He kept the 12-year-old lead actor Nathan Winters behind for ‘extra rehearsals’ in which he forced him to give and receive oral sex on-camera.

After being released from jail for child molestation and child pornography, Victor was surprisingly hired by Disney to film Powder—another film with a young boy as the lead actor in which the camera displays a salacious interest on his body.

Salva has been in the news recently for his casting call for an 18-year-old girl to play the role of a 13-year-old who flees from her abusive grandfather for an upcoming film. It seems that Salva is continuing to play out his paedophilic fantasies on the big screen, and film companies are continuing to hire him.

## 2. Men Behind The Sun (1986, T. F. Mous)

Men Behind The Sun is a Hong Kong–Chinese film about the atrocities committed by the Japanese at Unit 731, the secret biological weapons experimentation center of the Japanese during WWII. The film captures the Chinese sentiment towards the Japanese which is still deeply resentful, and it aims to be as historically accurate as possible. One scene sees a group of live rats set on fire. This was actual footage. In another scene, the director throws a cat into a room of hungry rats, and it is eaten alive.

But, most horrific is the scene of the film’s cover. Actual autopsy footage of a boy who died just before filming is included, and this scene received the strongest criticism. The director received Japanese death threats and Australia banned the film

To this day, Men Behind The Sun is held as one of the most shocking films of all time.

## 3. Last House On The Left (2009, Wes Carven)

This was Wes Carven’s breakout film, but in making it, he often stated that he feels that he went to far in pursuing the horrifying realism. Actor Mac Shaffer reportedly grabbed the actor Sandra Cassell and threatened to throw her off a cliff if she didn’t act with the kind of real fear that he was looking for. He filmed scenes in which actors threw real punches at each other, but the most brutal shenanigan was when actor David Hess was threatened with a real chainsaw by the actor playing his father.

## 4. The Revenant, (2015, Alejandro G. Iñárritu)

People often chide that Leonardo DiCaprio will do anything to win an Oscar. Maybe there is truth to this claim considering that he won an Oscar for this film after eating raw animal organs, sleeping in animal carcasses and contracting severe hypothermia during the filming of this movie. It raises questions about just how far method acting should go for the sake of art and good cinema. Like many of the films in these list, the actor is harmed for the benefit of the film, which raises major ethical questions, but at least it was his choice and he won an Oscar for it.

## 5. Poltergeist, (1982, Tobe Hooper)

In the famous Poltergeist scene where the actor JoBeth Williams swims with dead bodies….yep, those are real human carcasses. What’s even creepier, is that she came home after filming to find all the pictures on her wall to be hanging at a crooked angle. Was she traumatised out of her mind, was the director playing tricks on her (involving home invasion) in order to get real fear out of her on-camera, or….was there really something supernatural going on here?

## 6. The Shining, (1980, Stanley Kubrick)

The Shining is one of Kubrick’s masterpieces, and many consider it to be the best horror film of all time. One of the fantastic things about it is the acting of the frail, pallid Shelley Duvall whose look of fear and weariness are impeccable. That’s because Kubrick spent painstaking time and energy in filming each scene again and again and again, until Duvall broke down into an emotional mess. Shelley Duvall is now renown for being possibly the face of The Shining, but it would appear that Kubrick was the catalyst in her decline into mental illness, and she has not been the face of any major films since.